KONSEPT AŞAMASINDA, CEPHE MÜHENDİSLİĞİ ve DANIŞMANLIĞI

DIŞ CEPHE DANIŞMANLIĞI AÇISINDAN,

YAPILARDA GÖRSEL KONSEPT ve DIŞ CEPHE KONSEPTİ.

DIŞ CEPHE ETKİSİ,

Dış cephe deyince doğal olarak akla ilk gelen dış görünüm oluyor. Hiç şüphe yok ki dış görünüm çok ama çok önemlidir. Yapının dış görünümü ile verdiği ifade, insanlar üzerinde bir ekti oluşturur. Yapıya adımınızı atmadan önce onun dış görünümü sizin zihninizde bir takım duygular oluşturur. Sıcak, soğuk, kasvetli, sempatik, sıkıcı, güven verici köklü, iptidai, vs. Aslında bunu kelimeler ile cümleler kurarak yapmayız, bilinç altımız bunu saniyeler içinde yapıverir ve bu yapı kütlesi hakkında hemen bir hisse  sahip oluveririz. Artık bu yapı hakkında sahip olacağımız tüm edinimlerimiz bu ilk izlenim ve hislerimiz üzerine inşa olacaktır. Bu ilk intiba ya belki bir dergide gördüğümüz fotoğraftan belki de yapının bizzat kendi varlığından sahip oluruz ve bu yapı hakkındaki tercihlerimiz hep bu ilk intibanın tesirinde kalacaktır.

Dolayısıyla bir yapının dış görünümünü ifade anlamında belirlerken çok iyi düşünüp doğru bir strateji ile hareket etmek gerekir. Ben buna yapılarda “GÖRSEL KONSEPT” diyorum ve “DIŞ CEPHE KONSEPTİ” adından ayırıyorum. Bu yazının ilerleyen kısımlarında bu konuya tekrar döneceğim.

 

GÖRSEL KONSEPT,

Mimari Tasarım gruplarının yatırımcının sipariş ettiği bir ifadeyi projelendirdiği durumlar da söz konusudur, tasarımcının projeden beklentilerini cepheye yansıttığı durumlar da söz konusudur. Genellikle bu durum yatırımcı ile tasarımcı arasında devam eden bir süreçtir.

Sanılanın aksine, Dış cephe danışmanlığı bu sürece ( Görsel Konsept) müdahil değildir. Her yapının işlevsel özelliklerini yansıtan bir karakteristiği zaten olmak zorundadır. Karakola benzeyen bir otel cephesi olamayacağı gibi, hastaneye  benzeyen bir itfaiye binası düşünülemez. Diğer bir deyişle bir yapıya baktığınızda onun konut mu ? Otel mi ? Kamu binası mı ?  Yoksa bir Terminal binası mı olduğunun anlaşılması gerektiğinin ötesinde bina cephesinin çevreye verdiği ifade ( Görsel konsept) Cephe danışmanlığı konusunun dışındadır.

Örneğin, Otel cepheleri müşterilerinin zihninde, güven ve temizlik duygularını uyandırmak durumundadır. Daha sonra bu otelin kategorisine göre diğer gerekli ifadeler verilmek durumundadır. Ancak otelin kategorisi ne olur ise olsun bir otel için temizlik ve güven verici ilk intiba ihtiyacı, hiçbir şekilde değişmeyecektir. Yani dış cephesindeki dominant ifade “ Bu yapının bir otel olduğu, Güvende hissetmek ve Hijyen” olacaktır.

Tüm bu meseleler yapının Görsel konsept tasarımı öncesinde verilmesi gereken strateji kararlarıdır. Diğer bir deyişle temel prensip kararlarıdır. Dış cephe danışmanı bu aşamada müdahil değildir olması da doğru olmayacaktır. Çükü bu prensip kararlarına etki eden kriterler Cephe danışmanlığı uzmanlık alanına girmez.

Bu kriterler sosyolojik kültürel bir takım araştırmalara bağlıdır, çevresel çok farklı etken söz konusudur, pek çok alanda ki istatistiki veriler gereklidir, Yapının kullanım amacına dönük ticari verilere ihtiyaç vardır ve daha pek çok etken hakkında bilimsel ve doğru araştırma sonuçları gerektirecektir.

  • Bu yapının amacı nedir ?
  • Hedef kullanıcı kitlesi kimlerdir ?
  • Dış görünümün vereceği ifade kime veya neye dönük olmalıdır ?
  • Söz konusu ifadenin belirlenmesinde temel kriter nedir ? vs. pek çok sorunun yanıtı gerekmektedir.

Tasarımcı tüm bu etkenleri alt alta sıralayarak bir tasarım geliştirmeyi kabullenemeyebilir, ancak bana göre tasarımını bu etkenler doğrultusunda gözden geçirmek durumundadır. Mimar’ da tasarım yapar, Heykeltraş’ da. Ancak Mimar heyletraş kriterleri ile tasarım yapamaz, “Ben böyle yaptım böyle oldu” diyemez, heykeltraş bunu söyler. Mimar tasarımını, etken koşulları ile doğrulamak durumundadır. Bu durum heykeltraş içinde geçerlidir ancak söylemek istediğim heykeltraşın tasarımına etken koşulları, Mimari tasarımcınınkinden çok başkadır.

Ben bir Cephe danışmanı olarak bir heykeltraşın tasarımında da kabuk strüktürü oluşturulmasında hizmet vermekteyim. Bir Endüstri Tasarımcısının Ürününün kabuk strüktüründe de hizmet vermekteyim. Burada altını çizdiği husus “Görsel konsept-tasarım” başka bir şeydir, Bu görsel konseptin uygulama amaçlı etütleri sonucu elde edilen “Cephe Konsepti” ayrı bir şeydir. Dış Cephe Danışmanı ikinci aşama olan “Cephe Konsept” Çalışmasında elbette ki müdahildir ancak bu müdahale Görsel konsepte sadık kalınarak yapılmaktadır.

Görsel konseptin anlatım tekniği bir proje tadında olmak durumunda değildir, bir suluboya resim de olabilir bir yağlı boya çalışması da olabilir.   Günümüzde çoğunlukla, 3d Modellemeler ve animasyon teknikleri kullanılmakta ve görsel konsept çok daha iyi bir şekilde ifade edilmektedir. Mimarlık ofisleri tasarımlarını müşterilerine muhtelif teknikler ile sunmakta ve kabul edilmesini sağlamaktadırlar.  Cephe konsepti çalışması ise bu aşamadan sonra başlatılmakta ve “Cephe danışmanı” ile yürütülmektedir.

DIŞ CEPHE KONSEPTİ,

 

Görsel konsept’ den taviz verilmeksizin yürütülen bir çalışmadır. Dış cephelerin oluşturulmasında, aynı ifadeyi çok farklı malzeme türleri ile çok başka detay tipleri ile farklı sürelerde ve dolayısıyla çok başka maliyetlerde elde etmek mümkündür. Dış cephe konseptini belirlerken tüm bu alternatifleri profesyonelce değerlendirmek ve etüt etmek gerekmektedir. Bu çalışmalar dış cephe danışmanlığının “Proje Etüt Aşaması” içindeki çalışmalarının bir kısmıdır.

Örneğin, bir cephe düşünelim ki aynı plaka malzeme ile mütemadi olarak kaplanmayı kabullenmiş olalım. Bu plakanın ebat üretim standardını dikkate almaksızın yapılacak bir cephe modülasyonu, yüzlerce metrekare fire demektir ve bu firenin bedeli yatırımcıdan çıkacak demektir. Oysa ki küçük bir modülasyon müdahalesi ile yatırımcı büyük bir tasarruf yapacak ve kârı artacaktır. Bu ve bunun gibi yüzlerce müdahale noktası söz konusudur. Pek çok müteahhit bunun farkında bile değildir, taşeronları ile yaptıkları sıkı pazarlıkların yeterli olduğunu sanmaktadırlar. Elbette ki pazarlık yine yapmalıdırlar ancak Cephe etütleri tamamlanmış tüm detayları ile çözümlenmiş, teknik şartnamesi özenle hazırlanmış bir ihale dosyası ile yapacakları taşeron görüşmesinden %100 hedeflerini yakalayarak çıkacaklardır.

 

Konu hakkında daha detaylı bilgi için Özdemir Consulting Co. İle iletişime geçiniz.

 

 

Yazan: Erdal Özdemir

Cephe Mühendisi ve Danışmanı

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